My taught postgraduate studies focussed on copper alloys and glass, and I always had a soft spot for copper alloys. I’ve even done some practical casting myself. I didn’t build on this bibliography much during my PhD so I would judge it probably hasn’t been added to since c.2010.


Anon, 2003. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies 2003. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, 23.

Anon, 2004. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies 2004. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, 24.

Arletti, R. et al., 2006. Roman coloured and opaque glass: a chemical and spectroscopic study. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 83, pp.239–245.

Ashkenazi, D., Iddan, N. & Tal, O., 2011. Archaeometallurgical Characterization of Hellenistic Metal Objects: The Contribution of the Bronze Objects from Rishon Le‐zion (israel). Archaeometry. Available at: [Accessed September 22, 2011].

Bareham, T., 1994. Bronze casting experiments. Histo, 28(2), pp.112–116.

Bate, S. et al., 2000. Excavations at Quidney Farm, Saham Toney, Norfolk 1995. Britannia, 31, pp.201–237.

Bateson, J.D. & Hedges, R.E.M., 1975. The scientific analysis of a group of Roman-age enamelled brooches. Archaeometry, 17(2), pp.177–190.

Bayley, J. et al., 2009. A Gilt-Bronze Arm from London. Britannia, 40, pp.151–162.

Bayley, J., 1991. Anglo-Saxon Non-Ferrous Metalworking: A Survey. World Archaeology, 23(1), pp.115–130.

Bayley, J., 1992. Non-ferrous metal working in England: late Iron Age to medieval. Unpublished PhD Thesis. London: University of London.

Bayley, J. & Butcher, S., 2004. Roman brooches in Britain, London: Society of Antiquaries of London.

Bayley, J., Butcher, S. & Cross, I., 1976. The analysis of Roman brooches from Richborough Fort, Kent. In Archaeometry 1976.

Bayley, J., Mackreth, D.F. & Wallis, H., 2001. Evidence for Romano-British brooch production at Old Buckenham, Norfolk. Britannia, 32, pp.93–118.

Bick, D., 1999. Bronze Age copper mining in Wales – fact of fantasy? Historical Metallurgy, 33(1), pp.7–12.

Bourgarit, D. & Bauchau, F., 2010. The ancient brass cementation processes revisited by extensive experimental simulation. Journal of Metals, 62(3), pp.27–33.

Bray, P. j. & Pollard, A. m., 2012. A new interpretative approach to the chemistry of copper-alloy objects: source, recycling and technology. Antiquity, 86(333), pp.853–867.

Caneva, C. & Giardino, C., 1994. Extractive techniques and alloying in prehistoric Central Anatolia: experimental methods in archaeometallurgy. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 451–459.

Chase, W.T., 1995. Chinese bronzes: casting, finishing, patination, and corrosion. In Ancient & historic metals: conservation and scientific research. Getty Publications, pp. 85–117.

Coghlan, H.H., 1940. Prehistoric copper and some experiments in smelting. Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 20, pp.49–65.

Cook, S.R. et al., 2010. Concentrations of copper, zinc and lead as indicators of hearth usage at the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK). Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(4), pp.871–879.

Cook, S.R., Clarke, A.S. & Fulford, M.G., 2005. Soil geochemistry and detection of early Roman precious metal and copper alloy working at the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK). Journal of Archaeological Science, 32(5), pp.805–812.

Cooper, H.K., 2011. The life (lives) and times of native copper in Northwest North America. World Archaeology, 43(2), pp.252–270.

Craddock, P.T., 1977. The composition of the copper alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman civilisations. 2. The Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greeks. Journal of Archaeological Science, 4, pp.103–123.

Craddock, P.T., 1976. The composition of the copper alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman civilizations. 1. The Greeks before the Archaic period. Journal of Archaeological Science, 3, pp.93–113.

Craddock, P.T., 1978. The composition of the copper alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman civilizations. 3. The origins and early use of brass. Journal of Archaeological Science, 5, pp.1–16.

Craddock, P.T., 1979. The Copper Alloys of the Medieval Islamic World – Inheritors of the Classical Tradition. World Archaeology, 11(1), pp.68–79.

De Ryck, I., Adriaens, A. & Adams, F., 2003. Microanalytical metal technology study of ancient Near Eastern bronzes from Tell Beydar. Archaeometry, 45(4), pp.579–590.

Deraisme, A. & Barrandon, J.N., 2008. Unofficial coinage in the third century AD in the Gallo-Roman world: chemical and physical analyses for determining the localization of the workshop. Archaeometry, 50(5), pp.835–854.

Dix, B., 1986. Some further Roman bronzes from Brigstock, Northants. Antiquaries Journal, 66, pp.126–130.

Doonan, R.P.C. et al., 1994. The East Alpine Bronze Age copper smelting process: evidence from teh Ramsau Valley,

Eisenerz, Austria. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 17–22.

Dungworth, D., 1997. Iron Age and Roman copper alloys from northern Britain. Internet Archaeology, 2. Available at: [Accessed January 28, 2010].

Dussubieux, L. et al., 2008. LA-ICP-MS, SEM-EDS and EPMA analysis of Eastern North American copper-based artefacts: impact of corrosion and heterogeneity on th ereliability of the LA-ICP-MS compositional results. Archaeometry, 50(4), pp.643–657.

Eaton, E.R. & McKerrell, H., 1976. Near eastern alloying and some textual evidence for the early use of arsenical copper. World Archaeology, 8(2), pp.169–191.

Fernandez-Miranda, F. et al., 1994. Changes in Bronze Age metallurgy as depicted by laboratory analysis: the “La Mancha” model, Spain. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 23–34.

Fillery-Travis, R., 2008. Looking for meaning: a multidisciplinary study of variation in Roman Horse-and-Rider brooches. MSc. London: University College London.

Fortes, F.J. et al., 2005. Chronocultural sorting of archaeological bronze objects using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 554, pp.136–143.

Foster, G.V. & MacIsaac, J.D., 1989. Application of xeroradiography to the study of bronze coins. Journal of Field Archaeology, 16(2), pp.245–255.

Fox, A., 1996. Tin ingots from Bigbury Bay, South Devon. Mining History, 13(2), pp.150–1.

Friedman, A.M., Olsen, E. & Bird, J.B., 1972. Moche copper analyses: early New World metal technology. American Antiquity, 37(2), pp.254–258.

Giumlia-Mair, A., 2005. Copper and copper alloys in the southeastern alps: an overview. Archaeometry, 47(2), pp.275–292.

Gordon, R. & Knopf, R., 2006. Metallurgy of bronze used in tools from Machu Picchu, Peru. Archaeometry, 48(1), pp.57–76.

Gordon, R.B., Metallurgy of bronze tools from Machu Picchu.
Hamilton, E., Swann, C.P. & Fleming, S.J., 1994. Roman influences on metalworking at the Titelberg (Luxembourg):

Compositional studies using PIXE spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 85(1–4), pp.856–860.

Hauptmann, A., 2007. The archaeometallurgy of copper: evidence from Faynan, Jordan, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hauptmann, A., Bachmann, H.G. & Maddin, R., 1994. Chalcolithic copper smelting: new evidence from excavations at Feinan, Jordan. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 3–10.

Hauptmann, A., Begemann, F. & Schmitt-Strecker, S., 1999. Copper objects from Arad: their composition and provenance. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 314, pp.1–17.

Hauptmann, A., Maddin, R. & Prange, M., 2002. On the structure and composition of copper and tin ingots excavated from the shipwreck of Uluburun. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 328, pp.1–30.

Hong, S. et al., 1996. History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and medieval times recorded in Greenland ice. Science, 272(5259), pp.246–249.

Ingo, G.M., de Caro, T. & Bultrini, G., 2004. Microchemical investigation of archaeological copper based artefacts disclosing an ancient witness of the transition from the value of the substance to the value of appearance. Microchimica Acta, 144, pp.87–95.

Jacobson, D.M. & Weitzman, M.P., 1992. What was Corinthian Bronze? American Journal of Archaeology, 96(2), pp.237–247.

Jakielski, K.E. & Notis, M.R., 2000. The metallurgy of Roman medical instruments. Materials Characterization, 45(4–5), pp.379–389.

Kirov, G.N. & Ivanov, I., 1968. Crystal morphology of fayalite from copper converter slags. Kristall und Technik, 3(4), pp.637–642.

Klein, S. et al., 2004. The early Roman Imperial AEs coinage II: tracing the copper sources by analysis of lead and copper isotopes – copper coins of Augustus and Tiberius. Archaeometry, 46(3), pp.469–480.

Knapp, A.B., 2000. Archaeology, science-based archaeology and the Mediterranean Bronze age metals trade. European Journal of Archaeology, 3(1), pp.31–56.

Kuleff, I. & Djingova, R., 2007. Archaeometric investigations at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. Archaeometry, 49(2), pp.245–253.

Küttner, A., Mighall, T. & De Vleeschouwer, F., 2014. A 3300-year atmospheric metal contamination record from Raeburn Flow raised bog, south west Scotland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 44, pp.1–11.

Lechtman, H., 1996. Arsenic bronze: dirty copper or chosen alloy? A view from the Americas. Journal of Field Archaeology, 23(4), pp.477–514.

Lechtman, H., 1991. The production of copper-arsenic alloys in the Central Andes: Highland ores and coastal smelters? Journal of Field Archaeology, 18(1), pp.43–76.

Lechtman, H. & Klein, S., 1999. The production of copper-arsenic alloys (arsenic bronze) by cosmelting: modern experiment, ancient practice. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, pp.497–526.

Lins, A. & Power, T., 1995. The corrosion of bronze monuments in polluted urban sites: a report on the stability of copper mineral species at different pH levels. In Ancient & historic metals: conservation and scientific research. Getty Publications, pp. 119–151.

Luciano, G., Leardi, R. & Letardi, P., 2009. Principal component analysis of colour measurements of patinas and coating systems for outdoor bronze monuments. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 10, pp.331–337.


Marechal, J.R., 1985. Methods of ore roasting and the furnaces used. In Furnaces and Smelting Technology in Antiquity. Occasional Paper. London: The British Museum, pp. 29–42.

Mattsson, E. et al., 1998. Deterioration of archaeological bronze in soil. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use on Metals and Alloys (BUMA-IV). Matsue, Shimane, Japan, pp. 133–8.

Miller, D., Boeyens, J. & Kusel, M., 1995. Metallurgical analyses of slags, ores, and metal artefacts from archaeological sites in the north-west province and Northern Transvaal. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 50(161), pp.39–54.

Miller, D. & Sandelowwsky, B., 1999. Smelting without ceramics: The Drierivier copper smelting site near Rehoboth,

Namibia. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 54(169), pp.28–37.

Mohamed, W. & Darweesh, S., 2011. Ancient Egyptian Black‐patinated Copper Alloys. Archaeometry. Available at: [Accessed August 23, 2011].

Muhly, J.D., Wheeler, T.S. & Madden, R., 1976. New research on ancient copper and copper alloys. In Archaeometry 1976.

Oakberg, K., Levy, T. & Smith, P., 2000. A method for skeletal arsenic analysis, applied to the Chalcolithic copper smelting site of Shiqmim, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27, pp.895–901.

Ottaway, B., 1974. Cluster analysis of impurity patterns in Armorico-British daggers. Archaeometry, 16(2), pp.221–231.

Ottaway, B. & Seibel, S., 1999. Dust in the wind: experimental casting of bronze in sand moulds. In M. C. Frere-

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Ottaway, B. & Wang, Q., Casting experiments and microstructure of archaeologically relevant bronzes, Oxford: Archaeopress.

Palmieri, A. et al., 1994. The composition of ores and slags found at Arslantepe, Malatya. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 447–449.

Patterson, C.C., 1971. Native copper, silver and gold accessible to early metallurgists. American Antiquity, 36(3), pp.286–321.

Pavlish, L.A. et al., 1994. Distinguishing different European sources of trade copper and brass from archaeological sites in Ontario. In Archaeometry 1994. pp. 59–65.

Pigott, V., 1989. Archaeo-Metallurgical investigations at Bronze Age Tappeh Hesar. In R. H. Dyson & S. M. Howard, eds. Tappeh Hesar. Reports of the Restudy Project 1976. Florence, pp. 25–34.

Ponting, M., 2002a. Keeping up with the Romans? Romanisation and copper alloys in First Revolt Palestine. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, 22, pp.3–6.

Ponting, M., 2002b. Roman military copper-alloy artefacts from Israel: Questions of organization and ethnicity. Archaeometry, 44(4), pp.555–571.

Pryce, T.O. et al., 2007. “De Caerimoniae” technological choices in copper-smelting furnace design at early bronze age Chrysokamino, Crete. Archaeometry, 49(3), pp.543–557.

Raber, P., 1987. Early copper production in the Polis region, Western Cyprus. Journal of Field Archaeology, 14(3), pp.297–312.

Radivojević, M. et al., 2010. On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(11), pp.2775–2787.

Rehren, T., 1999. Small size, large scale: Roman brass production in Germania Inferior. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, pp.1083–1087.

Renfrew, C., 1978. Varna and the social context of early metallurgy. Antiquity, 102, pp.199–203.

Rickard, T.A., 1932. The nomenclature of copper and its alloys. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 62, pp.281–290.

Robbiola, L. & Portier, R., 2006. A global approach to the authentication of ancient bronzes based on the characterization of the alloy-patina-environment system. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 7(1), pp.1–12.

Rothenberg, B., 1985. Copper smelting furnaces in the Arabah, Israel: the archaeological evidence. In Furnaces and Smelting Technology in Antiquity. Occasional Paper. London: The British Museum, pp. 123–150.

Ruffler, R., 1996. Three thousand years of copper metallurgy – seen through the eyes of Mossbauer spectroscopy. Part III: copper losses in bronze age slags. Hyperfine Interactions, 99, pp.401–407.

Sayre, E.V. et al., 2001. Stable Lead Isotope Studies of Black Sea Anatolian Ore Sources and Related Bronze Age and Phrygian Artefacts from Nearby Archaeological Sites. Appendix: New Central Taurus Ore Data. Archaeometry, 43(1), pp.77–115.

Schrenk, J.L., 1995. The royal art of Benin: surfaces, past and present. In Ancient & historic metals: conservation and scientific research. Getty Publications, pp. 52–62.

Schweizer, F., 1995. Bronze objects from lake sites: from patina to “biography.” In Ancient & historic metals: conservation and scientific research. Getty Publications, pp. 52–62.

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One thought on “Copper

  1. Hi your work is most interesting. I am doing a PhD in South Africa. Part of the study relates to Late Bronze Copper Mining in the Arabah/Arava Valley.

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